Narcos decoded.

 

Screen Shot 2017-06-01 at 2.53.46 PMNarcos or narcotics are basically addictive drugs that reduce the user’s perception of pain and induce euphoria (a feeling of exaggerated and unrealistic well-being). The English word narcotic is derived from the Greek narkotikos , which means “numbing” or “deadening.”

India’s long found battle with the issue of illegal drug trafficking as well as illegal drug trade has not been able to pull up as much concern as the other insignificant issues have managed to, bothersome as it might be, the choices out are slender. However a lot is written about, spoken and debated on how the northern States of India including the Punjab and Haryana have been incandescent in cases involving illegal drugs and narcotic substances trafficking. What however has been ignored is the fact that each day tons of drug cartels are brought into the lesser known north-eastern States of India. These States mainly include Meghalaya, Assam, Manipur, given the drugs scenario. It undoubtedly has been a huge concern for the country to stop the import and manufacture of Opium in the country. The reasons for the same are mainly two. Firstly the region of north-eastern India witnesses a higher youth ratio than most parts of India and secondly and more importantly the “Golden Triangle”, which in this particular context refers to the border regions between Thailand, Burma and Laos and when gold was used by Chinese traders to pay for opium grown there.In Southeast Asia the term is synonymous with the opium and heroin trade.

 

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Now what is known most definitely is the fact that the state of Punjab which is usually dubbed as India’s granary mostly because of the agricultural prowess and the quality of its food products, the state of Punjab is now seen as a haven for drug traffickers because of its geographical proximity to the states of the ‘Golden Crescent’ (Afghanistan, Pakistan and Iran). Their illegal opium production has made India, and specifically the state of Punjab, extremely vulnerable to the most voluminous trafficking of heroin throughout the country. This has been steadily increasing since the 1980’s, when the drugs began to be redirected through India since the traditional Balkan route had to be shut because of Iran-Iraq war.

Punjab accounts for half the cases which are registered in India under the Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances Act, 1985, and for one-fifth of the heroin seizures in India. As of September 2014 , the Punjab police had already seized around 450 kilos of heroin, and 13,000 people have been arrested in trafficking and selling the drug. According to some independent studies, it was found that approximately 70% of the youth in Punjab between 16-35 years of age seems to be gripped by the devastating drug addiction, a direct cause of the ever proliferating drug trade and trafficking across the Indo-Pak border.

 

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Drugs are packed and sealed before crossing the border from Pakistan to India by throwing them across the fence on predetermined and decided spots for pickups. Sometimes, the drugs are bundled separately and the bundles are tied together and are inserted through the fence or even through an underground tunnel within rubber tubes, with a thread dangling on the other side to pull the drugs out.

These appalling statistics come as no surprise when the investigations uncover and bring to the surface the links between drug traffickers and politicians in the drug racket. This has aided in crippling the generation of addicts not only in Punjab, but in India as well. Addicts and former police personnel who were involved in the illicit drug trade have confirmed the involvement and linkage of political activists and drug peddlers in the state. In previous years, the Golden Triangle region had witnessed almost exclusive production of opium, from which heroin was manufactured and trafficked to various parts of the world. In recent times, the Myanmar part of this region has been dominated by manufacture of drugs such as amphetamines and methamphetamines, which can be produced cheaply in small, hidden laboratories, without the need for acres of exposed land.

In conclusion, although India has made attempts to control this problem by adopting strategies of reduction of drug supply and demand, it needs to act on a much higher scale involving a 3 tier approach: firstly, strengthening of existing laws and possibly creation of new ones, secondly increasing security at the borders; and lastly actively co-operating with neighbouring countries and other members of the international community. At the grassroots level it is of significant importance to address the social impact of drug addiction in an efficient manner, through ensuring that schools/college students are aware of the health and legal consequences, establishing proper rehabilitation centres in places that may lack them, such as certain regions in the North East which are affected directly but aren’t properly equipped with treatment options.

 

The Outer Space Legal Landscape.

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Since the dawn of the space age heralded by the launch of Soviet Sputnik, which was launched by the Soviet Union into an elliptical low Earth orbit on 4 October 1957. It was a 58 cm (23 in) diameter polished metal sphere, with four external radio antennae to broadcast radio pulses. It was visible all around the Earth and its radio pulses were detectable way back in October 1957.

Since then, there has been a burgeoning growth in the global space activities, underpinning the need for a regulatory mechanism supported by a legal framework to facilitate the smooth, robust growth of the exploration of final frontiers without any negative fall outs for earthlings. For many years now, space law experts in India have been vigorously debating the need for the country to enact a comprehensive space law to cover a wide range of issues concerning the exploration of the final frontiers and help consolidate India’s position as an emerging global space power in its own right. Since the ushering in of the space age heralded by the historic launch of Soviet Sputnik way back in 1957, mankind has been confronted by a serious dilemma over how to take care of the responsibilities and liabilities of the space faring nations.

For in the context of the phenomenal growth in the global space activities, spurred on by the entry of private players in a big way, the 1967 UN outer space treaty is being considered “inadequate and deficient” in so far as addressing a range of issues including the “weaponizaton” of outer space is concerned. The 1967 UN outer space treaty ratified by all the countries of the world is perhaps the first ever comprehensive legal system aimed at regulating global space activities. This treaty unequivocally forbids the exploitation of outer space for testing and deploying weapons of destruction including nuclear devices; for it treats outer space as the common heritage of mankind meant for peaceful uses. But then the grim ground reality is that countries including USA, former Soviet Union and China have exploited outer space for experimenting with anti- satellite and killer satellite systems. As such, there is a growing clamour for a comprehensive, legally binding treaty to commit nations to keep outer space a zone of peace by preventing its militarisation.

 

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Against this backdrop, UN has been negotiating with its member countries for a holistic, comprehensive space treaty that would take care of a number of emerging issues involved in space exploration. But such a treaty would become a reality only if the front ranking space faring nations including USA, Russia, China and India play a  proactive rule in the business of giving a final shape to the legally binding treaty agreed to by UN member countries. As things stand now, no one is sure as to when a comprehensive UN sponsored space treaty would come into force.  However, from the Indian perspective, the need to boost the scope of the national space activities, spearheaded by the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO), has underpinned the immediate need for space legislation. With a view to facilitate the entry of private industrial players in the space sector of the country, the Indian Government is now working towards bringing out comprehensive space legislation. The new space law would allow private companies in the country to take up the business of building satellites and launch vehicles in line with the trend in North America and West Europe.

As envisaged now, in the initial phase, the private Indian companies would be given a green signal to float  consortiums with the Bangalore based Antrix Corporation, the commercial arm of the Indian space programme to prepare the ground for the assembly and  delivery of satellites and launch vehicles on a routine basis. Clearly and apparently, the Indian Government has a proposal to open the Indian space sector, for many years dominated by the ISRO, to domestic and international players in a phased manner. Once the space act comes into force, private players will be in a position to own and operate satellite systems. At the end of the day, it would help ISRO extricate itself from the “routine and mudane” business of building satellites and launch vehicles and concentrate instead on cutting edge research aimed at boosting India’s deeper forays in outer space.  According to Kiran Kumar, Chairman, ISRO, very few countries in the world have their own exclusive legislations covering the use of outer space. The view of Kumar is that a full-fledged space enactment is necessary for the Government to spell out as to how it would go about tackling space related issues including untoward incidents. For the spectre of space accidents highlighted by the possibility of satellites gone haywire hitting earthlings is very much a chilling reality that cannot be wished away. Significantly, ISRO has proposed setting up of an integrated industrial corridor in the vicinity of Satish Dhawan Space Centre (SDSC), the Indian space port on Sriharikota, island on the eastern coast of the country, for the integration of launch vehicles including the four stage Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV) and their delivery in a ready to use condition.

 

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As it is, under the Make in India, flagship programme of the Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi, companies planning to set up launch vehicle and spacecraft building facilities would be permitted to go in for 100% FDI (Foreign Direct Investment). Further there is a proposal for a well-equipped industrial zone near Bangalore where Indian private industrial enterprises will build and deliver the satellites to ISRO. While legally binding international treaties are vitally essential to regulate the healthy and robust growth of space activities without any negative fall outs for earthlings, individual space faring nations too should have their own space acts to regulate their space activities in consonance with dynamics of global space activities. For India, which has made a mark as a leading space faring nation in the aftermath of the successful probes to moon and Mars, a comprehensive and holistic space act has become a critical necessity to give greater level of acceleration to its space activities.

A holistic space act is also a necessity for India since India has been making all out efforts to exploit space technology to drive a range of developmental and governance activities in the country. Incidentally, India has an excellent track record in terms of diffusing the fruits of space technology into the mainstream of national development and harnessing the potentials of its IRS and INSAT/GSAT spacecraft constellation for monitoring natural calamities including tsunami, floods, landslides, forest fires and droughts.

For the Indian defence establishment, keen on rolling out its own roadmap for a space war strategy, which has assumed a centre stage in the backdrop of China forging ahead with an ambitious plan for killer space devices, a comprehensive space act would be a major game changer. For ISRO, being a civilian space agency charged with the task of promoting peaceful uses of outer space, the Indian defence set up has no other option but to carry on the burden preparing the country for the eventuality of a space war. Specifically, the Indian defence set up is looking at the possibility of setting up a launch pad dedicated to orbit military satellites. Moreover, in view of the limited launch infrastructure of ISRO, the Indian defence set up may be nudged to build its own launch vehicles of varying capabilities.  Not surprisingly then the proposed space act would  take care of  the space related needs of the Indian military including putting in place a blue print for a space war that India may be forced to wage in the future Strategic analysts are of view that Indian military should also look at the need ensuring the security of Indian “space resources and assets” against the backdrop of a belligerent and resurgent China making efforts to deploy anti-satellite and killer satellite devices. Equally significant would be the need to harness potentials of space technology for military applications. Incidentally, the much debated anti-satellite test carried out by China in early 2007—that had attracted international ire—has gone to heighten the clamour in India for preparing the country for the eventuality of a space war. In a shocking display of its military prowess China successfully destroyed its ageing weather watch satellite by using a modified version of a ground based ballistic missile. And while addressing the  United Commanders Conference in New Delhi  in mid-2008, the then Defence Minister A.K.Antony made India’s concern vocal  over the “emergence of anti-satellite weapons, a new class of heavy lift boosters and  improved array of military space devices in our neighbourhood”.

In the backdrops of global developments in the area of space warfare, Indian defence experts have suggested the need for India to go in for both defensive and offensive space war strategy. The defensive aspect involves hardening of satellites against the machinations of the space based and ground based “killer devices” including anti-satellite systems. Against this backdrop the proposed Indian space act should contain a legal provision to support a well-defined space security plan to be unveiled by the Indian defence establishment. In particular, the tri-service Indian aerospace command, which unfortunately is yet to be approved by the Indian Government, should have under its control a well-equipped space and missile force to take care of all aspects of space war. On its part, Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) has  stressed the point  that it is capable of engineering “building blocks” of a killer satellite system to help prepare the country for the eventuality of a space war. What’s more, a modified version of the long range Agni-V missile, described as the most powerful missile system developed by India, can be used to launch defence satellites into a low earth orbit during emergency. “Agni-V can be used to launch mini satellites into a low earth orbit when access to one’s major satellite constellation gets disrupted” observed the then DRDO chief V.K.Saraswat, moments after the successful maiden test flight of Agni-V in April 2012. Perhaps the biggest contribution of the proposed Indian space law would be clearing the decks for the private companies in India to take up the mantle of building satellites and launch vehicles in addition to allowing them to operate their own satellite constellations that would cater to the needs of both the domestic and international customers. More importantly, an Indian space law would  also go a long way towards helping the Indian defence set up to create a ground work for an Indian space war strategy. On another front, Indian private enterprises associated with the Indian space programme would be in a position to enter the global space market by courtesy of a well-conceived Indian space law. At the end of the day, it would be a win-win development for all the stake holders and players in India’s space sector.

For more information on Space Law treaties and UN conventions, please visit the web links listed below: –

 

http://www.unoosa.org/oosa/en/ourwork/spacelaw/treaties.html

http://www.unoosa.org/oosa/en/ourwork/spacelaw/nlbcompendium.html

http://www.unoosa.org/oosa/en/ourwork/copuos/index.html

AFSPA; a delusion or a dilemma ?

NOTE: – By expressing my views about the following topic, neither am I commenting against the Government nor the provisions enacted by the Legislature. The content posted is purely for the public views and any rash comments would not be appreciated.

 Even before I begin with this rather heated topic, I’d like to clearly state that over here by presenting the following post to the audience, I’m under no circumstances being answerable to any Government entity or persona as a whole. I’m by means of the post, which is to follow, trying to generate awareness about such practices which are getting highly prevalent in modern day India. My intention here is not at all to blame the Legislature or the respected Indian Army, which puts across its heart and soul to serve us and make India a better country. Over here I’m to tell about that strata of the medical fraternity who take patients as their business, my intention here is only to express my views duly and to exercise my power to raise my voice against the issues that bother me. 

 

    AFSPA: – 

The Iron Lady of the largest democracy of the world, Irom Chanu Sharmila finally ends her more than 500 weeks which is 11 years of hunger strike, against a protest for repealing AFSPA. No wonder it has been declared to be the world’s longest hunger strike till date. She had pledged not to look in the mirror, not to comb her hair, nor  eat, drink or meet her mother unless the Act stands repealed. She was jailed a number of time thereto, and the Government made her compulsorily intake food and water by way of nasogastric incubation to eep her alive while in arrest.

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Her giving up on her bequest does not tend to surprise me, what does surprise me is the never ending politics that the region of seven sisters that is the North-Eastern region of India,  the contiguous States of Arunachal PradeshAssamMeghalayaManipurMizoramNagaland and Tripura is facing since time immemorial. Let’s face it, how many of us even knew about the names of these seven States if asked impromptu ? I bet more than 80% cannot and would not be able to name more than four of the Seven Sister States.

 

Also it is a state of terrible disgrace that more than 80% of us, the concerned citizens do not know about AFSPA. The only way concern is shown is through the rising grocery prices, teamed up with concerns about team India winning the championship trophy and the like. I have been on a quest to change the ongoing scenario and to support the same, views about the above mentioned topic will be the expressed herewith.

Post-independence, India has witnessed many secessionist movements and has long suffered from extremist attacks. The very notion of secessionism disturbs the territorial integrity and unity of a country. In order to curb the secessionist activities of the militants, the Indian government under Nehru in 1958 implemented the Armed Forces Special Powers Act (AFSPA).

 AFSPA is an acronym for ARMED FORCES SPECIAL POWERS ACT, 1958. The said Act had been bought into force  and enacted in the year 1958. It was first implemented in the North-Eastern Region and then to Punjab and finally to Jammu and Kashmir. In the case of Armed Forces Special Powers Act, 1958 ( Manipur and Assam ), the Government used Article 355 of the Constitution to confer powers on the Governors of the States. The Act is applicable only after an area has been declared, “Disturbed”. The power to declare a territory ,“Disturbed” initially lay with the States, but this power was passed to the Centre in 1972. Section 3 of AFSPA (in J&K), says that an area can be declared disturbed if it is the, “Opinion of the Governor of the state or the central government which makes the use of armed forces in aid of the civil power necessary”. Under the provisions of the Act, the “Armed Forces” may shoot to kill or destroy a building on mere suspicion. A non-commissioned officer or any one of equivalent rank and above may use force based on opinion and suspicion, to arrest without warrant, or to kill. He can fire at anyone carrying anything that may be used as a weapon, with only, “Such due warning as he may consider necessary”. Once AFSPA is implemented, “No prosecution… shall be instituted except with the previous sanction of the central government, in respect of anything done or purported to be done” under this Act.
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The Supreme Court found the Act constitutionally valid. However the draconian powers the Act gives to the armed forces, particularly Section 4 which allows a soldier to shoot at sight under certain circumstances, can result in abomination, if misused. The basis for giving life to this otherwise dormant enactment is the notification by the Home Ministry declaring an area “Disturbed.” Failing to maintain law and order with vast resources such as the para-military and the police it has under its command, the MoH declares an area disturbed and hands over the situation to the Ministry of Defence. The armed forces, trained to protect the borders, are deployed to restore normalcy. There can be no two opinions that rape and murder committed by soldiers must be dealt with firmly.  The crux of the problem is the prolonged deployment of the army in internal security duties in a particular area. The Government must first withdraw the notification declaring an area disturbed and let the soldiers return to the barracks. Overwhelming presence of insurgents causes grave insecurity to the common people. It creates a situation where people have to live under constant fear and anxiety. Frequent declaration of bandh, forcible extortion and shelter by militants are sources of insecurity to the people. On the other hand, widespread protest by people against the Act clearly shows their discontent towards it. Adversaries of the Act argue that the increased militarization of the area creates a detrimental atmosphere that ends up creating people’s protests against the State. On the other hand, the protagonists of the Act believe that extraordinary conditions demand extraordinary measures. According to them, there is no denying the fact that AFSPA gives special powers to the security forces but it, also, has to be understood that there’s no other simple way to fight the insurgents. When the enemy penetrates within the civilian population it is he who has curbed the liberty of the people and not the security forces who are, in fact, trying to ensure that the right to life and dignity of the civilian population is not compromised by. AFSPA is the need of the hour.

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In the AFSPA controlled areas, human rights are being violated both by state and non- state actors. Counter- terrorism operations undertaken in good-faith, at times, lead to collateral damage. Proposals have been made to been made to amend section 4 which gives Army powers to search premises and make arrests without warrants, use force, even to extent of causing death, destroy arms dumps, hideouts and to stop, search and seize any vehicles.

The controversial AFSPA has been extended by six months in entire Assam and the 20km-wide belt in Meghalaya bordering the state with the Centre declaring that the “disturbed area” status, which has been in force since 1990, will continue. In a gazette notification, the Home Ministry said the law and order situation in Assam has continued to be a matter of concern due to the violent incidents by underground outfits and during January-September 2016, different militant groups were involved in 66 incidents of violence in Assam which resulted in killing of 29 people.

Emerging Status: –

 

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The AFSPA debate has been a long sparring bout conducted in the latter half of 2011. The main boxing bout is still to be fought. Shadow boxing matches were carried out between political parties at the state level (NC, PDP and Congress); at the National level (Cong, NC and BJP); the J&K Government and State Administration against the Army within the state; the Chief Minister of J&K discussed the issue with the Army Chief, the National Security Advisor, the Home Minister, the Raksha Mantri and the Prime Minister. The media, both print and electronic, had a field day bringing defence analysts, political luminaries, experts on Kashmir, separatist leaders face to face for debates with no possible conclusion. The Lokpal Bill and related issues overtook the prolonged AFSPA debate and buried it under the welcome snowfall in Kashmir.

Nevertheless, the least we could conclude is to each his/her own, and these opinions thus expressed do not necessarily mean to harm the image, reputation or otherwise of the nation or the Defence, without whose help, we would never be able to breathe peacefully.

I’d like to thank Indian Defence Review.

 

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Refugees : Creatures Of Circumstances.

It was a fresh new morning of 14th `December 2015 when I logged onto Facebook and found this post about a really young Iraqi refugee, named ‘Aya’. This is Aya’s picture as posted on the page of Humans of New York.

Aya

 

A page called “Humans Of New York,” had posted about how her life took a surprising turn, with the unfavourable events unfolding for her one after the other. She’s just about twenty years of age, but once you know what her entire story is all about, I’m sure you’ll be as compelled as I am at this point of time. Her tale is sure to leave you spellbound as well as in tears. I am about to narrate. It is in her own words, that she describes what she has been through, all thanks to Humans Of New York, for supporting persons like her and letting the entire world get to know and help refugees  who are in deep need of moral support and financial support as well.

 

Aya’s tale, as narrated to Humans Of New York. : –

“When I was a baby I came very close to dying. I’m not sure how to say the name of the disease in English, but all the water in my body started to dry. I couldn’t gain weight and I became very weak. This was during Saddam’s time, and the hospital staff told my mother that in two days they would euthanize me. But my mother refused to accept this. She called everywhere and found a clinic in Jordan that said they could give me treatment. There was an American doctor there who saved my life. We stayed in Jordan until I was seven, and then we moved back to Baghdad. One day I was playing in our garden and I heard very loud noises and the sky was really red and everyone was screaming. It’s very hard to describe. It was like there was blood in the sky.”

(Gaziantep, Turkey)

“This is a photo of me right before the war came. Maybe my parents knew the war was coming, but they didn’t tell me. I wouldn’t have understood. I didn’t even know the meaning of war. Bombs started falling all around us. We lived very near one of Saddam’s castles. My mother told us: ‘It will be very loud, but nothing bad will happen to us. We will all be here together.’ Many houses in our neighborhood were destroyed, but I’d close my ears and sing songs whenever the bombs came close. In the cartoon shows, the good always wins, so I thought that we were good and nothing would happen to us. Then one day I heard a big sound and I saw that my best friend Miriam’s house had been destroyed. We walked to school together every day. I went to see if she was OK and I saw Miriam on the ground. She didn’t have any legs and she was screaming and I can still hear that sound now. They pulled me away but I saw everything. I don’t think it was good for a child to see this.”

(Gaziantep, Turkey)

ayas picha

 

 

“After Miriam died, I began to have silly thoughts. I thought that I was supposed to be President of the World. It sounds funny now but I was just ten years old. I thought that if I was really clever in school and got all the best marks, I would become a leader and I could stop the war. I could just tell everyone to love each other and they would listen to me. I taught myself English during this time. I would listen to American songs and translate every word. I’d watch Hollywood movies. I’d practice talking to myself in front of the mirror every night. I’d even give gum to American soldiers so I could have conversations with them. I thought maybe if I just concentrated on my studies, I could avoid the war. It worked for two years. But one day I was driving with my father and a car bomb exploded ahead of us. I got out of the car because I thought that maybe I could save the people but there were hands and heads in the street. Everyone was dead. It was like a horror movie. It was like Titanic but it was really happening and it was in the street.”

 

“These things are very hard for me to remember, but I try not to cry because I want to be strong for my mother. It was hardest for her because she had children. During the war she had to worry about herself, but she also had to worry about us. It made her very ill. Her blood pressure is very high now. Her hand shakes. She has bladder problems. But she is my hero because she always protected us. One time when my father wasn’t home, a strange man entered our house. But my mother pretended to be a man and screamed downstairs in a very deep voice. And she saved us.”

 

“These things are very hard for me to remember, but I try not to cry because I want to be strong for my mother. It was hardest for her because she had children. During the war she had to worry about herself, but she also had to worry about us. It made her very ill. Her blood pressure is very high now. Her hand shakes. She has bladder problems. But she is my hero because she always protected us. One time when my father wasn’t home, a strange man entered our house. But my mother pretended to be a man and screamed downstairs in a very deep voice. And she saved us.”

 

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“I was fourteen when I arrived in Syria. Those were the best two years of my life. The first day we arrived, I made my father take me to school so I could register. I was doing so well in school. I got very good grades. I got so many awards and my teachers kept telling me that I had a very bright future. They told me: ‘One day Aya, you will be the voice of refugees.’ On the weekend I was volunteering to help other refugees. I organized an entire chorus of refugees. Things were going so well. My father was working as a driver. We were very comfortable. Then war came to Syria. It began for me as a bomb threat at our school. Then people began killing each other in the street. I was studying one afternoon, and I looked out the window, and a man smashed another man’s head with a stone. Right in front of me. Our landlord told us: ‘I am leaving the country. Everyone must go.’ So again we became refugees. We put everything we had into six bags, and we left.”

 

“George is my refugee dog. We’ve been through many horrible things together. I found him in Baghdad when he was just a puppy. My father and I were driving down the road and I saw some teenagers holding George by the ears and hitting him. I jumped out of the car and begged them to stop and gave them all the money I had. George was so thin and dirty, and the doctor said he was very sick and he’d only survive if I took perfect care of him. And look at him now! He’s been with me through Iraq, Syria, Turkey… everything. Whenever he sees me crying, he jumps in my lap and uses his paw to pull my hands away from my face.”

 

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“My years in Turkey have been the hardest four years of my life. When we first arrived from Syria, we couldn’t communicate with anyone. I had no friends. If we wanted an egg from the store, we had to make chicken sounds. I paid for everything in this apartment by working as an interpreter for an NGO. We started at a zero and I built us up to a six, all by myself, and I’m very proud of that. But we can go no further without citizenship. I can’t get a degree. I can’t work any other job. Turkey has taken many refugees and we should be thankful for that. And the people here were nice to us at first. Our neighbors brought us rice and food. But then more refugees came. And more. And then everything changed. Now people shout at us in the streets. They tell us to leave. But we have nowhere to go. A man recently started sending me messages on Facebook, saying: ‘Get out!’ I didn’t even know him! Why me? Why did he choose me? We’ve had to switch apartments four times because our landlord decided that Arabic people are no longer allowed. I’ve been hit by a car. My sister got hit in the face at school and lost two teeth, and now her vision is bad in one eye. Being a refugee is really hard. They blame us for everything. They blame us for no jobs. For crowded streets. For crime. They say that we are the reason for everything bad. And if war ever comes to Turkey, we’ll be the first to die. Because they’ll blame us for that too.”

 

“We applied for resettlement in America. We did all our paperwork. We had two different interviews in Istanbul. Then we waited for a very long time. For months I kept checking the website, but it always said: ‘Case pending.’ Then one night my friend called me, very excited. It was midnight. She told us there had been an update on the website. I ran to the computer, entered our case number, and it said ‘Case accepted!’ I zoomed in on the word ‘accepted’ and my hand started shaking. I screamed to my family: ‘Turn off the TV! We’re going to America!’ It was like a wedding. We turned on the music. We started dancing and crying and kissing each other. A new life! The United States! We couldn’t believe it! Over the next few weeks I spent so much time on the computer. I searched for schools for my brother and sisters. I found the university I wanted to study in. I found a hospital for my mother. I was searching for jobs for my father. I had everything planned. I even found extra clothes for George because I thought it might be cold. In the evenings I’d sit with my sisters and help them plan what their rooms would look like. And Christmas time was coming. We thought we would go to New York during Christmas time! We were even planning to see the big tree! For two months we dreamed like this. Then a letter came in the mail.”

 “It was like a nightmare. I fell on the floor and started screaming: “No, no, no!’ I cried for days. I couldn’t go to work because my eyes were so red. I went to the hospital and they had to give me medicine to calm me down. Security related reasons? What can that mean? They don’t know my family. I know my family. My father was a train driver. Every male in our country had to do military service for six months when they were young, but he only did the radar. He swore to me that he’d never even touched a gun in his life. Our family loved America. My father always told me about America. He made us go talk to American soldiers during the war. Other people were afraid of Americans, but he told us they were here to help us and not to be afraid of them. He told us that America was a place where so many different people lived in peace. So many religions. So many communities. We loved America! Every day we watched Oprah. My father promised me that one day we would go on her show and meet her. We even wrote about Oprah for our assignments in school. Why would we ever hurt America? All of my dreaming ended on the day this letter arrived. I became a person without hope.”
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“Six months ago my father disappeared. He left one morning and didn’t come home. That morning he answered the phone one time, and he said: ‘I’m fine, Aya. I’ll be home soon.’ And he never answered the phone again. You can’t imagine what this has done to my mind. I don’t know if he is dead. I don’t know if he remarried. I know nothing. All day and night I must imagine what has happened. I haven’t even told my younger sisters. I tell them that Daddy went to Istanbul to work but he will be home. They wouldn’t be able to take it. I still post old photos to his Facebook page so it seems like he exists. But it’s been six months, and they want to know why he hasn’t called. I promise he’s a good person, really. I love him so much. He loved me too. He always told me that he was proud of me and I was going to be something in life. But how could he leave me like this? How could he leave all of this on my shoulders? I’m twenty years old. I can’t handle all of this by myself. I don’t need him to work, or make money, but I need him. I need my Daddy. I can’t do this alone much longer. I’m getting tired. I’m a warrior and I’m strong and I’ve fought so much but even warriors get tired. I’ve been having crazy thoughts lately. I don’t want to do it. I’ve been through so much. I wanted to go to school and be something in life. But I can’t do this much longer. I’m alone here and I’m in a very bad place. I feel very scared. I never wanted to be the traditional Arabic girl who marries her cousin and spends all day in the house. I’ve worked so hard to escape it all. And I know it’s dangerous. But if things don’t change for me, I think I’ll have to go back to Iraq.” 
Please, consider becoming A Friend Of Aya:
http://www.change.org/friendsofaya
By signing the above petition, you’ll be supporting Aya’s petition to the President, for her resettlement to the U.S.A.
Please help her, and do sign the petition. Two minutes of your time could make a huge difference to her life.
Thank you.

 

 

 

 

So, you were saying ?

Something inspires me to work each day better than I worked yesterday, and that is because I have realized that a successful man and an unsuccessful man have at least one thing in common, that being they both have 24 hours a day to work upon. I have never been a keen companion of politics, but one man has changed that ever since he first put his step forward, in beginning of the era of the historical elections campaign started in 2014. The nation came to a standstill when he first entered the elections, and since then the nation has not seen any other precedent. I think he as a person, has a very positive charisma which attracted over 814.5 million people to cast their votes in these historic elections, not to forget it saw the maximum number of voters casting their ballot  ever in the history of the world. there was something in him that once again strengthened the beliefs of the people, people knew as a matter of fact, that this person, is a sign of change, and voting for this very historic figure would mean investing in their futures, as well as the nations future which has since decades been in the dark. The general election of 2014 saw the return of one-party majority at the Center, something India didn’t see for three decades and moreover it saw a politician, who didn’t have a political surname and had also sold tea once, and  become the prime minister of the biggest democracy in the world, that is India.

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On 26th May 2014,  Narendra Damordas Modi took oath as the Prime Minister of India, becoming the first ever PM to be born after India attained Independence. Dynamic, dedicated and determined, Narendra Modi reflects the aspiration and hope of over a billion Indians.Thinking beyond the petty limits of party politics, the rise of Narendra Modi as the prime minister of India vindicated the democratic struggle that India has waged for the last 67 years. He has been the 15th and current Prime Minister of India, and there has been no looking back. I am not sure if I can claim that any other politician has been able to lead India to a global platform, as vigorously as Mr. Modi has been able to. I can proudly assure the people that it has only been less than 2 years of him acquiring the oath of the PM, but the type of evolution that he has been able to bring about is beyond what my words can possibly express. I have, read numerous books dedicated to Mr. Modi, and believe me, each one has made me comprehend something  new about him, and that’s something that truly amazes me. He has been such a substantial antecedent of my inspiration, that now, after decades, I can insolently assure the people of my country, as well as the entire world that 10 years from now, India will be a superpower.

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I am sure that there are various politicians in India, each having their own skills  and their own mindsets, but, I am not sure if they have utilized their resources and their capabilities in the same way as our current Prime Minister has been able to.  There were multitudinous efforts made by Mr. Modi to reach out to the people, and make them understand his stratagem, his plan of transforming India, which unfortunately had been stagnating with the rule of a single party since the last three decades. I wont even be able to list down all the ways by which he has been able to touch the hearts of Indians, so precisely. Some of his most acclaimed initiatives taken, before the elections were as follows : –

  1. Narendra Modi’s 3D avatar for political campaigns which went on to become a world record:-Narendra Modi’s 55-minute speech was broadcast simultaneously to 53 separate locations in 26 cities in Gujarat, becoming a Guinness Word Record. Alongside Indian licensee NChant 3D, they were awarded the Guinness World Record for the 53 simultaneous broadcasts using ‘the Pepper’s Ghost illusion’. A 3D avatar of the Gujarati Chief Minister was created and beamed to crowds of up to 30,000 per venue using our EyeLiner™ and TelePresence™ technology. Over 1,000 miles of campaigning was covered across the vast region with every broadcast. Modi went on to secure his third consecutive term in office following the 2012 campaign.
  2. Narendra Modi’s Chai pe Charcha meaning Mr. Modi sharing his ideas and further addressing the issues faced by the common people across India. So many such initiatives have been taken by him that mentioning them here would almost turn out to be impossible, one of those in recent times being “Mann Ki Baat”, wherein he interacted with people over the radio.

I could not have ever imagined India touching such paradigms of success each day, had it been led by the government it had earlier. reading the newspapers each day, stories unfolding about how once again our Honorable Prime Minister, Shri Narendra Modi has proved to the people of India that he is here for change, I can now feel a sense of pride in associating myself with my country. Mr. Modi has not only developed tremendously good relationships with the nations worldwide but also seen to it that he becomes a minister for his people, which I must add he has been doing quite rightfully. The opposition may blabber about how our Prime Minister has been only touring countries abroad, but it is a very well known fact even to them that, they would not in decades be able to achieve the pinnacles of success which our prime minister has been able to achieve in such a short duration.

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Concluding with the only thing that comes in my mind right now, that if ever I do get the chance to meet this very person for whom I am all praise now, I would be satisfied as well as sure one of my goals in life is achieved. Anyone who is interested in knowing further about our prime minister can very well access his website and decide for themselves their opinions, http://www.narendramodi.in/

Hoping to know more and be able to be as persistent as him.

Salute to Shri Narendra Modi.

The Encouraging Thunder Award #1

encouraging-thunder-awardHola people!

Been literally ages since I’ve accepted awards or even posted articles, I’ve been caught up with so many things that continuing to blog became almost too impossible, I’m sure Law students can relate, so without further a due, I’m quickly going to thank a fairly new blogger who shares similar interests with that of mine, yes, she too is a Law student and aims to be a fine Lawyer someday, which I’m sure she shall accomplish. Further, I’m only accepting this award which my fellow blogger has given me since she’s new and is also a Law student. I’m so very sorry for not accepting the awards which some of you’ll have honored me with, but since you’ll understand that life for a Law student does not come easy, I have not been able to accept the other awards. Sorry again.!

Thank you so very much Gursimran Kaur for such a wonderful award, I wish you all the very very best for your future endeavors and I hope you achieve what you are aspiring for.!

So coming back, here are the rules for accepting the following award : –

  1. Thank the person who nominated you.
  2.  Include the awards logo..
  3. List the reason(s) you started blogging.

err, here I’m making a few alterations in the rules and not nominating anyone, since I have not been able to connect to WordPress since a lot of months, hence I’m not aware of the deserving bloggers,

so I shall just accept the award, and state the reason for me to start blogging.

I started blogging last year, somewhere around November, and I must say it has changed my life for the better. I was keen on writing and expressing my thoughts on India’s social issues, it’s system, it’s working, the Judiciary and so on. I was at that point of time studying for Public Relations, and my professor, Vikram Kharvi, once suggested to me saying, “Hardi, if you’re so keen on voicing your opinion and want it to reach the masses as a whole, the best method is to maintain a blog..”

The next day I started researching as to how it all works, and then there was no looking back. I started to blog about my opinions, Laws which in my opinion should be amended, started spreading awareness about things that people do come across in their daily life but do not pay heed to, and I must admit, the appreciation I get, the love I get from all the bloggers makes me continue to post blog posts every now and then even in this extremely busy schedule.

That’s pretty much why and how I started to blog, and soon I’m going to start posting again.

Visit back,

Thanks and happy blogging peers. 🙂

Need For Change.

Apologies first, since I haven’t posted in a rather long time. secondly again the topic which I’m today going to write on might incite mixed views from each one of you’ll but at the same time I hope it’s an understood fact that these are my own personal views and do not aim to hurt the feelings of any person, whatsoever, nor does it aim to criticize the way things in India are functioning.

THE BURNING NEED FOR UNIFORM CIVIL CODE; 

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Uniform civil code of India is a term referring to the concept of an overarching Civil Law Code in India. A uniform civil code administers the same set of secular civil laws togovern all people irrespective of their religion, caste and tribe. This supersedes the right of citizens to be governed under different personal laws based on their religion or caste or tribe.Such codes are in place in most modern nations.

Article 44 of our Constitution recommends, “The State shall endeavor to secure for citizens a uniform civil code throughout the territory of India.” This was drafted as a recommendation  as to allow the State some time to integrate and unite the country after Independence before moving on to civil reforms. There was a reasonable apprehension that an iron fist approach to enforcing a common civil code may lead to widespread religious unrest and possible disintegration of a fragile union.
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The common areas covered by a civil code include laws related to acquisition and administration of property, marriage, divorce and adoption.This term is used in India where the Constitution of India attempts to set a uniform civil code for its citizens as a Directive Principle, or a goal to be achieved.In India, most family laws are determined by the religion of the parties concerned. Hindus, Sikhs, Jains and Buddhists come under Hindu law, whereas Muslims and Christians have their own laws. Muslim law is based on the Sharia.The personal laws of other religious communities were codified by an Act of the Indian parliament. Other sets of laws such as criminal laws and civil laws on contract, evidence,transfer of property, taxation were also codified in the forms legislation.
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Law cannot afford to be selective in application. It has to be general and uniform unless the area of operation of a particular law or the people it deals with are distinguishable from others and such distinction has reasonable connection with the purpose of the law in question. If any law or body of laws violates this basic condition, it would, sooner or later, face resistance on moral or social grounds, if not strictly on legal ones. 
India is a secular state, world’s largest democracy and second most populous country (1,205,073,612 in 2012) emerged as a major power in the 1990s. It is militarily strong, has major cultural influence and a fast-growing and powerful economy. With its many languages, cultures and religions, India is highly diverse. This is also reflected in its federal political system, whereby power is shared between the central government and 28 states. Religions not only have been serving as the foundation of the culture of India, but have had enormous effect on Indian politics and society. In India, religion is a way of life. It is an integral part of the entire Indian tradition. A vast majority of Indians, (over 93%) associate themselves with a religion. According to the 2001 census 80.5% of the population of India practice Hinduism, Islam (13.4%), Christianity (2.3%), Sikhism (1.9%), Buddhism (0.8%) and Jainism (0.4%) are the other major religions followed by the people of India. There are also numerous minor tribal traditions, though these have been affected by major religions such as Hinduism, Buddhism and Christianity. It is in this diverse context we have to analyze the necessity of Uniform civil code. Personal Laws in India.
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     India is a country of millions of  customs and communities. India is home to many famous religions and cultures in the world. Throughout India’s history, religion has been an important part of the country’s culture. Religious diversity and religious tolerance are both established in the country by the law and custom India is a country that has secularism enshrined in its Constitution yet there is a contradiction in this whole concept of secularism, particularly when it is interpreted in the personal laws of its citizens. It becomes a confusing melting pot when Hindus, Muslims, Christians and Parsis have different personal laws pertaining to marriage, adoption, guardianship, divorce, succession and so on. Each community in India has their own personal laws in case of marriage and divorce. These religious communities co-exist as part of one country yet the family laws in India differs from one religion to another. The reason is that the customs, social usage and religious interpretation of these communities as practiced in their personal lives depend hugely on the religion they were born in and that which they practice in the Indian society. The codified personal laws relating to marriage, divorce, property and inheritance are: •
1- The Indian Christian Marriage Act of 1872 (applicable to whole of India except areas of erstwhile Travancore- Cochin, Manipur and Jammu & Kashmir),
2-  Anand Marriage Act, 1909 (For Sikh marriages), • Cochin Christian Civil Marriage Act of 1920 (applicable for Travancore-Cochin areas),
 3-  Muslim Personal Law (Shariat) Application Act, 1937 (making Shariat laws applicable to Indian Muslims),
4- The Parsi Marriage and Divorce Act, 1937 •
5- Hindu Marriage Act, 1955 (applicable to not merely Hindus, Buddhists and Jains but also to any person who is not a Muslim, Christian, Parsi or Jew, and who is not governed by any other law).
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      Defining Uniform Civil Code Uniform Civil Code generally refers to that part of law which deals with family affairs of an individual and denotes uniform law for all citizens, irrespective of his/her religion, caste or tribe. The need for a uniform civil code is inscribed in Article 44 (Article 35 in the draft constitution). This article is included in Part IV of the Constitution dealing with the directive principles of state policy. The legal nature of the Directive Principles is such that it cannot be enforced by any court and therefore these are non judicial rights. The Constitution further calls upon the State to apply these principles in making laws as these principles are fundamental in the governance of the country.
    Article 44, which deals with the Uniform Civil Code states: “The State shall endeavor to secure for the citizens, a uniform civil code throughout the territory of India”.
         The objective of this article is to effect an integration of India by bringing all communities into a common platform which is at present governed by personal laws which do not form the essence of any religion. Uniform Civil Code Controversy In India personal laws are the main cause of communal conflict among people. One of the basic problems with the absence of a Uniform Civil Code applicable throughout India is that it goes against the concept of equality which is one of the basic tenets of our Constitution. By having different personal laws for different religions we are, in a sense undermining the credibility of the secular ethos of India. A Uniform Civil Code will also simplify the cumbersome legal processes involved with the matters governed by personal laws. It will also go a long way in promoting the causes of secularism, equality and national integration. It will also make the separation of the State from the religion more complete and meaningful. The personal laws of all including Hindus can be changed timely. In referring personal laws of all religion we can see the male dominance. The issue of personal laws and the Uniform Civil Code was now firmly embedded in conflict communal politics. The 1980s were a period of growing crisis in India.
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        The secular consensus had broken down and communal conflicts were escalating, with both majority and minority fundamentalism on the rise (Upadhyay 1992). Pratibha Jain suggests amending the Constitution as an alternative to the uniform civil code. However, it is imperative to look into the other side also. Still, time is not mature for the implementation of the Uniform Civil Code. Polarization in the society along religious lines is still very much alive in our country. The destruction of mosques and temples, communal riots are clear pointers towards the fact that India is yet to achieve the level of a stable and mature secular democracy. If the Uniform Civil Code is introduced in such a society, it may lead to further complications. Moreover, for Indians, religion is not just a casual part of their personal life. Here religion plays a primary role in the lives of most of the people. Therefore the introduction of the civil code should be a well-thought out and careful process. Another argument against the Uniform Civil Code is that its imposition will be a violation of Fundamental Rights envisaged by the Constitution.
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       . Fundamental Rights are judicial rights and are regarded as the most important rights guaranteed by the Constitution. Article 26(b) says, “Subject to public order, morality and health, every religious denomination or any section thereof shall have the right to manage its own affairs in matters of religion.”
 Those people who argue against the Uniform Civil Code are of the opinion that for believers, matters like marriage, divorce and inheritance are religious affairs and the Constitution guarantees freedom of such activities and GRA – GLOBAL RESEARCH ANALYSIS X 158 Volume : 2 | Issue : 9 | Sept 2013 • ISSN No 2277 – 8160 therefore the Uniform Civil Code will be a violation of that. This issue has already been a matter of intense debate as the Supreme Court has observed that marriage, succession and the like matters of a secular character cannot be brought within the guarantee enshrined under Article 25 and 26 of the Constitution. While delivering the judgment on the Indian Succession Act, Section 118, the Supreme Court was categorical in asserting that the right to follow one’s personal law is not a Fundamental Right. Their argument is that this code will affect the religious freedom of minorities. They claim that the sentiments of the minorities are not considered while implementing a common law! There are political parties and leaders who are always eager to hijack such issues to improve their vote banks. We must depoliticize the uniform civil code. Uniform Civil Code and Gender Justice It is a known fact that in the personal laws of all the communities’ gender injustice is inbuilt.
    This is supposed to be the result of the socio-economic conditions under which they evolved. That is why there is a need to reform the personal laws or bring about a uniform civil code to ensure not only equality between men and women but also to bring about gender justice. Women undergo many difficulties and experience severe trauma in matters concerning their marriage, divorce and inheritance. Polygamy, desertion, triple divorces are just a few examples to show the possibilities of harassing women. Indian women are formally granted equality in political rights through the Indian Constitution. But due to the different personal laws, women experience inequality, deprivation and violence. Within the family, their position is pitiable. The question of women’s rights as human beings is completely ignored. The personal laws are designed to keep them forever under the control of men. Even though the Constitution of India gives equality to women in certain areas – legal and social, they are not effective to ensure real equality.
    The Supreme Court in a few judgments has opined that legislation for a common civil code as envisaged by Article 44 of India’s Constitution should be enacted. It said so in Shah Bano’s Case in 1985, in Sarla Mudgal Case in 1995 and in Vallamattam case in 2003. A critical look at the constitutional debate, legislative enactments and judicial decisions very clearly indicate the lack of seriousness in ensuring justice to women. Gender issues need to be addressed very seriously. A uniform civil code is, therefore, foremost a matter of gender justice. If it is implemented it will lay the foundation for women to overcome many social evils like dowry system, bigamy etc which makes a woman feel inferior and degraded.
Conclusion :  As a conclusion I would say that a secular India needs a uniform civil code but urgent need to force any uniform civil code on an unwilling population is not necessary. Most people are not ready to adopt truly secular laws separated from religious customs. The Uniform Civil Code can be successfully introduced only after achieving improved levels of literacy, awareness on various socio-political issues, enlightened discussions and increased social mobility. The ultimate aim of reforming uniform civil code should be for ensuring equality, unity and integrity of the nation and justice both men and women.

Disclaimer:

This blog is owned and maintained by Hardi Goradia.

The content on this site is offered only as a public service to the web community and does not constitute solicitation or provision of legal advice.  This site should not be used as a substitute for obtaining legal advice from an attorney licensed or authorized to practice in your jurisdiction. You should always consult a suitably qualified attorney regarding any specific legal problem or matter. The comments and opinions expressed on this site are of the individual author and may not reflect the opinions of the firm or any individual attorney.

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Versatile Blogger Award #2

Firstly thanks so very much Saadiahaq (The Human Lens) for nominating me for this wonderful award, her blog site is a must visit and I totally appreciate her women power as well as her powerful thoughts, now I’m really sorry since I’ve stated so many facts about myself in the previous awards that it’s going to turn out to be really difficult to state new ones, I can try though.

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Now all award come with preset of and am sharing this particular award’s rules. Here it goes:

1. Thank the person who nominated you and add a link to their blog

2. List the award rules so your nominees will know what to do.

3. State 7 things about yourself

4. Nominate other bloggers for the award.

5. Contact your nominees to let them know you have nominated them.

6. Display the award logo on your blog.

So, here are the seven facts about me:

1. My parents no matter what be my first as well as my last priority, they are my guiding light in the dark, and even if the world falls apart by the decision they ask me to take I’ll be more than ready to do it too. First God = parents. I’m the luckiest daughter in existence to have been blessed with such parents.

2. I’m always very very positive, there’s this one life we’ve got to live and I would surely not waste it being all pessimistic and cribbing all day as to what would’ve happened had I not done something which I did, leading to dire consequences. I always work with the mindset that everything happens for a reason, no matter how bad it may seem at first, but it’s later that we realize how benefiting it proved to us in the long-run. After-all why regret something that once made you smile?

3. I’m crazy, terribly crazy after big roller-coasters, seeing them makes me go all wild.

4. I’m an extrovert, and open up to people really well and gel around just about good, but I’ve only about 5-6 really close friends whom I can give my life to if the need arises, I’m more of an extremist I’d rather say in some matters, and my close ones are one of those for whom I can go to any extends after my family of-course.

5. I love dressing up, researching about things that interest me, extremely patient, my mom always has this thing to tell me that “Hardi, what’s even wrong with you? You never get angry! Have you ever experienced what anger is?” It’s that crazy with me, also this quality of mine perfectly suits the profession that I’ve chosen, it being Law 🙂, Driving is my passion, painting, exploring new countries, seeing what makes them different from the others and things like that. Lastly reading is life, I’ve an entire library at home and it’s something I’ll lose interest in, books be my best friends.

6. Blogging is something which I completely adore, It has opened an entire new arena which is yet to be fully discovered by me but still you people have given me so much of love and more and more enthusiasm to write even better as the day passes that seeing all this is just amazing, I’m bewildered by all the response I keep getting for every new post.

7. I’m a through foodie at heart and else. I love tasting new cuisines, Love for food is eternal no matter what, also I’m extremely extremely happy with the career choice that I’ve made, in a very short span of time I’m experiencing success in my endeavors so by God’s grace things in future will too keep falling in place

My nominees are as follows:-

1. https://doctorly.wordpress.com/

2. https://jaivyaswrites.wordpress.com/

3. http://edwinlives4ever.com/

4. https://stupidusmaximus.wordpress.com/

Thanks so very much for chopping out time and reading my post, many more to come your way,

Happy Blogging Bloggers.!

Hardi H. Goradia

An Unfinished Battle..

HUMAN TRAFFICKING.. the second most organized crime in the entire world after trade of drugs and arms.

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Imagine someone deciding your value and selling you off to someone whose totally unknown to you, to a unknown place, somewhere where you’re forced into something you never dreamt of in your wildest nightmares, imagine landing up there one day ! Seems disastrous, isn’t it? every year 11th of January is recognized to be a day for spreading awareness on human trafficking and hence I deemed it fit to bring up this topic.

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This is merely the beginning of a never ending nightmare, which zillions of girls and women face each day, across the world. Girls and women are sold off to prospective buyers and pushed either into flesh trade, or  into bonded labor. Irrefutable is the fact that trafficking of women and children is a grave violation of human Rights and one of the most serious organized crimes of the day, transcending cultures, geography and time. The response by the agencies concerned in addressing the issues has been far from satisfactory, which has exacerbated the violations and harm to the trafficked persons. No wonder, the vulnerable sections have become more prone to trafficking. The spate of incidents reported from different parts of the country, where thousands of children remain untraced, is a symptom of the serious dimension of trafficking. In order to address this issue, there is a need for empowering the Law Enforcement agencies, i.e., police, prosecutors, judiciary, correctional administrators, development administrators as well as the social activists and the media so that they are fully empowered with knowledge, skills and appropriate attitude. There is a vast difference between human trafficking and prostitution.

iopoIn the language of trafficking, India constitutes a country of origin, transit and destination for trafficked persons. In 1996, a report published by the Coalition Against Trafficking in Women, Asia Pacific, reported that there were 2.3 million women in prostitution in India, a quarter of whom were minors, in over 1,000 red-light districts all over the country. Recent trends disclose the alarming fact that the age of entry into sexual slavery is rapidly decreasing, against the backdrop of steadily rising numbers of both women and children being inducted into commercial sexual exploitation.

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Trafficking is the illicit and clandestine movements of persons across national borders, largely from developing countries, and some countries with economies in transition, with the end goal of forcing women and girls into sexually or economically oppressive and exploitative situations for profit of recruiters, traffickers, crime syndicates and other activities (e.g. forced domestic labor, false marriages, clandestine employment, and false adoption).’ – United Nations General Assembly, 1994. It also maybe called the recruitment and transportation of a person, within and across national borders, by means of deceit, violence or threat of violence, abuse of authority or dominant position for work or services which may result in forced laboror slavery like practices. Victims of trafficking are exploited and tortured for the financial gains of their exploiters. An estimated 5 lacs of women and children are trafficked every year with an annual increase of 10% of which 20 – 30 % are below 13 years of age. Children are mainly trafficked for the purpose of commercial sexual exploitation, begging, child labor or for adoption purposes. Trafficking takes place either from state to state or through international borders. In most of the trafficking cases that are tried in court, the children are rescued after they have been trafficked to some place. The Government of India penalizes trafficking for commercial sexual exploitation through the Immoral Trafficking Prevention Act (ITPA). Prescribed penalty under the ITPA – ranging from seven years’ to life imprisonment – are sufficiently stringent and commensurate with those for other grave crimes. India also prohibits bonded and forced labor through the Bonded Labor Abolition Act, the Child Labor Act, and the Juvenile Justice Act. Indian authorities also use Sections 366(A) and 372 of the Indian Penal Code, prohibiting kidnapping and selling minors into prostitution respectively, to arrest traffickers. Penalties under these provisions are a maximum of ten years’ imprisonment and a fine.

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Trafficking does not mean prostitution. They are not synonymous. In understanding trafficking, one should delink it from prostitution. As per the existing law, Immoral Traffic (Prevention) Act 1956 (ITPA) prostitution becomes an offense when there is commercial exploitation of a person. If a woman or child is sexually exploited and any person gains out of the same, it amounts to commercial sexual exploitation (CSE), which is a legally punishable offense wherein the culpability lies against all exploiters. Trafficking is the process of recruiting, contracting, procuring or hiring a person for CSE. Therefore, trafficking
is a process and CSE is the result. In the past decade, the volume of human trafficking has grown to the extent that it is now the third largest form of transnational organized crime after firearms and drugs. In India, the scale of commercial sexual exploitation and trafficking is steadily rising despite the existence of the Immoral Traffic (Prevention) Act, 1956.

Trafficking is an organized crime. Therefore, prevention and combating trafficking is possible only if the law enforcement agencies deal with the issues from the perspective of organized crimes. An essential aspect of organized crime is that there are multiple crimes and multiple criminals having direct or indirect linkages. Therefore, investigation of one crime should lead to other crimes and other criminals. Similarly investigating one suspect /criminal should lead to other crime/criminals. This is possible only when the intelligence emanating from each instance is collated, consolidated and disseminated. Since the investigations of crimes are mostly done at the junior level in the police hierarchy, who may not have much networking and liaison, especially outside their limited jurisdiction, the police managers/leaders have to take initiative in consolidation and dissemination of criminal intelligence. Given the dimensionsof trafficking, intelligence should be all pervading and cannot be segregated into distinct pockets of source, transit and destination areas. Moreover intelligence includes both strategic and tactical components.

My only prayer to this cruel world is.. that the little girl you’ll are trafficking is someone’s piece of heart, is someone’s hope, someone’s dream. She is the one who is someone’s daughter, sister, wife, mother and much much more. She has all the rights to live normally and freely, she has all the rights to fulfill her desires, her family hope’s that lingered upon her, and by doing this, you’re proving nothing but how slavery is still prevalent in this so called FREE world.

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Very Inspiring Blog #2!

indexShower of awards!

This is all so astonishing, when I first started this blog, I’d no damn clue that I’ll reach this far and get so much of love and recognition worldwide. This is something simply an amazing experience. Thanks so very much everybody. Thoroughly appreciate. Special thanks to the one who has nominated me for this award,  Courtney, here’s the link to her blog site https://courtenaysbeautybox.wordpress.com/.

So here are the rules to be followed;

1. Thank the person who nominated you and add a link to their blog
2. Display the award on your post
3. List the award rules so your nominees will know what to do
4. State 7 things about yourself
5. Nominate 15 other bloggers for the award
6. Contact your nominees to let them know you have nominated them. Provide a link to your post.
7. Proudly display the award logo (or buttons) on your blog, whether on your side bar, ABOUT page, or a special page for awards.

Here are 7 things about ME.! 😉

1. My haters are the one’s who inspire me to work even harder, I love smiling at them since it burns them into ashes,

2. For me my work is my worship, always and forever, I’m a very dedicated worker, may it be drafting or preparing arguments for my mentor, everything is do get’s me a step closer to my future ambitions.

3. When I love, I love intensely but when I tend to hate someone I hate them with even more intensity, so it’s basically like if you’re good to be I’ll be ten times better with you, but if at all you come in my way or do something that instigates me to show who I really am, then God save you. No exaggerations here, but the truth is the truth.

4. I strongly believe in the fact that the world maybe rules by lies at one point of time but the truth is always going to be the superior winner, no matter what. Whenever I’m going through a rather rough patch in my life, and I see that lies are overpowering the truth facet, I always remember the words that my mom always asks me to remember, ” The lies spoken may for once overshadow the hidden truth, but never will the truth be hidden in the long run”.

5. I strongly believe in Karma, what goes around is surely going to come around too.

6. I hate people who are negative, who discourage me to accomplish my goals, those vibes don’t suit me.

7. I prefer books over new clothes, I can go on reading for centuries together and never get bored at all, that much is my love for books.

Here are my nominees;

1. http://sanwajourneys.com/

2. http://edwinlives4ever.com/

3. https://doctorly.wordpress.com/

4. http://tastefortongue.wordpress.com/

5. http://lunaticpoet.com/

6. https://disappearingwoman.wordpress.com/

7. https://helensjournal.wordpress.com/

8. https://continuumissues.wordpress.com/

9. https://deepbluesandseafoamgreens.wordpress.com/

10. http://bendinggenre.com/

11. https://deannaschrayer.wordpress.com/

12. http://thecandidpickle.wordpress.com/

13. https://lifeoutofthenest.wordpress.com/

14. http://youngandtwenty.com/

15. https://bjaybrooks.wordpress.com/

So, thanks for reading and Happy blogging, sorry for the randomness of the facts, been too busy lately with visits to the court everyday, and other legal matters. Coming up with a new issue soon enough,